HNO3, H2SO4 (first proton), HClO4
= CSA, (if CSA > 10-6)|
pH = -log [H+]
= CSB, (if CSB > 10-6)|
[H+] = Kw/[OH-]
with a Ka, e.g. CH3COOH, or salts of weak bases, e.g.
with a Kb (mostly amines, e.g. NH3), or salts of weak
acids, e.g. CH3COO-Na+.
of weak acids and their conjugate bases, e.g. CH3COOH mixed with
Some Extensions to the formulas above:
The quadratic equation may need to be solved. For ax2+bx+c = 0,
For very dilute strong acids or bases, e.g. CHCl = 10-8 M HCl, charge balance gives us
[H+] = [Cl-] + [OH-], from which we get . Rearrange into standard quadratic equation form and solve for [H+].
For weak acids or bases, if successive approximation does not converge, convert the equation into the quadratic equation form and solve for [H+] or [OH-]
Dilute Buffers may require this extended equation:
The Full Amphiprotic Equation is: