"groups of people working together to accomplish a desired goal.
Police agencies may be divided into:
Planning & Research
Depending on the size of the agency, the above divisions
may be further divided to handle specific specialized tasks.
Check the following police department organizational charts for examples:
|Alameda, CA||Washington D.C.|
Other commonly used terms to describe sections or divisions
within police agencies:
An Internal Affairs Unit or Special Investigations Unit
responsible for investigating allegations of misconduct
or criminal offenses committed by police department
employees generally exists in large agencies and the
head of that unit typically reports directly to the Chief
Theoretically each unit/group works together to reach
common goal of organization
The organizational structure must, at times, undergo modifications
to allow the organization to meet its needs and fulfill its mission.
Specialization-is a basic feature of organizations
the principles of traditional organizational theory.
As such, specialization:
Virtually all large organizations today are Bureaucracies
Any differences in the nature of the Bureaucracy, such as
listed below, are due to size:
The best way to describe the dissillusionment with the typical Buraucracy
is found in one of the pages of CONDORITO magazine. In the magazine
Coné asks Yuyito "how can you tell when you are dealing with a
Yuyito: "When every solution is turned into a problem"
Strict adherence to rules stressed by management can
manifest itself in the following outcome:
NOT MY JOB!!!!!
Some police agencies have recognized the problems
caused by the rigidity of the Bureaucratic Model.
The typical Rank Structure impedes ability to offer adequate
incentives for street officers, and officers with high education
and specialized knowledge can be overruled in their decisions
by supervisors with little education and less expertise simply
based on rank.
Attempts at changing the rank limitations include:
Policies, Procedures and Rules
Policies: general guidelines to organizational philosophy and
mission-should be written and changed as circumstances
Procedures-more specific, serve as guides to action but less restrictive
than a rule. Method of operation with some flexibility
Rules and Regulations: specific managerial guidelines-little or no
latitude for discretion
· Need for flexibility: discretionary nature of duties
Common complaint: Abuse of discretion
· Total standardization not possible-ambiguous role
· Role too serious for everything to be left up to the discretion of individual
Nature and Source of procedures:
· Some dictated by US Supreme Court: Garner v. Tennessee
· Some administrators use: flurry of memos as procedure manual
· Too many standardized procedures stifle imagination and initiative
· It is impossible to cover all possible exigencies
· Areas not covered, exploited by officers
Influence of Research on Police:
BEST KNOWN study-Kansas City MO patrol study.
In this study, the police varied the Patrol techniques in three
different matched beats as follows:
POLICE RESPONSE TIME STUDY:No preventive patrol
2-3X amount of preventive patrol
Normal/usual level of patrol
The findings of the study countered commonly held beliefs
about the impact of different styles of patrol. A comparison
of crime statistics and citizen satisfaction in areas experiencing
different levels of patrol showed that:
- No significant differences in crime rates or citizen perceptions
of safety. Similar results obtained in St.Louis and Minneapolis.
- Police can stop patrolling beats for up to one year without
being missed and without increase in crime.
Random thoughts on the KC patrol study from LAW ENFORCEMENT NEWS
- Response time unrelated to probability of arrest or locating
witnesses, nor citizen satisfaction
- The time it takes the victim to report the crime is a major
dermining factor of whether an arrest can be made on the
FINDINGS:OTHER MAJOR FINDINGS BASED ON RESEARCH:
- Detectives played minor role in solving cases-depended
more on info from patrol officer
- patrol officers are responsible for most arrests, directly
- Use of Predictors of Case closure-to better manage burglary caseload
NOTE: Study overlooked that uniformed patrol typically handles a case FIRST
and Detectives have to complete or follow up cases that were either not cleared
or solved by patrol or that needed more work. This does not diminish or make the
value of detective work meaningless.
POLICE MATTER by the Manhattan Institute
An Analysis of the Impact of New York City's Police Reforms.
Click here for
Community Oriented Policing Information not provided
in the Textbook.
Also review information at: Community Policing
Below is your professor looking for a sinus/headache pill:
The traditional remedy is not working!
Important Concepts, Key Terms, and Information
Different organizational structures of police agencies
Typical terms used: Line and Staff, Operations and Support, etc.
Typical location of Internal Affairs in organizational hierarchy
(Who does the IA commander usually report to?)
Examples of specialization within police agencies
Advantages and Disadvantages of Specialization?
Problems or disillusionment with the Beaucracy
Nearly all large organizations are Bureaucracies
Problem with excessive rules in police work
Responses to rank or promotional limitations
Findings of the Kansas City Patrol Study
Findings of the Response Time Study
Findings of the Detective Study
Instructor's perspective on higher solve rate by patrol officers
Email comments to the instructor