ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS
How should it be measured?

 

WHAT IS IT?

Peter Manning-Police Effectiveness:  One of the difficulties involved in the measurements that have been done…is that they are aggregated measures which do not take into account political, cultural, social realities… (commenting on measurements of police effectiveness).

PURPOSE OF ORGS and how met?

Organizational Effectiveness-main focus in theoretical and practical oriented literature on organizations.

To measure effectiveness:

·        Identify criteria

·        Measure criteria

OTHER QUESTIONS:

·        How are outcomes measured

·        What about qualitative assessment of outcome? 
What is good/bad?

Cost benefit analysis-Pinto

·       Police?

·       Corrections?  Overcrowding vs. Safety of Public

·       Courts?  Giuliani-defense of three year sentence for Boesky-utility of sentence

DEFINITION OF EFFECTIVENESS:

Political Consequences

 

What is Organizational Effectiveness:
Match between goals and outcome

Continued organizational existence  
                  (Successful leadership?)

Problem-definition too multifaceted and ambiguous

Effective/Ineffectiveness can coexist

Campbell’s definition-no mention of output

IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE?

Various measures can conflict-Identify some

To managers-effectiveness is bottom line

Relative E. determined by studies can influence
policy and operational decisions

Redistribution of resources

Effectiveness studies:  politically intertwined

Criteria for Effectiveness-reflection of those in power

BOOK EXAMPLE-

installation of more telephones in Detention facility-
impact on prosecutor’s ability to plea bargain.

MOST COMMON THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE
ON EFFECTIVENESS:

Extent to which organization reaches its goals

CJ-arrest rates, conviction rates, recidivism-
part of goal model

IDENTIFICATION OF PRIMARY GOALS
PROBLEMATIC IN CJ

INTERNAL PROCESS MODEL:

PARTICIPANT SATISFACTION/STRATEGIC
CONSTITUENCY MODELS

GOAL MODEL:

Issues: 
·        Multiple goals
·        Change in goals-political environment

Efficiency vs. Effectiveness problem

REDUCTION OF GANG ACTIVITY-
 
    PROTECTION AND OBSERVANCE OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS

RESPONDING FASTER TO CALLS-Public Relations?

RECIDIVISM RATES vs. FOCUS of CORRECTIONS

Ability to untangle different variables affecting Recidivism

GOALS OF PROBATION-Measure of effectiveness?

PROCESS MEASURES vs.
GOAL ATTAINMENT MEASURES
Structure-corr. officer/inmate ratios,
 
police/population ratios etc.
Decision making